Traditional pieces of the male and female national costumes in Poland: bielunka, bruclek, ciasnocha, cucha, czepiec, czółko, fortuch, galaty, gorset, gunia, jaka, jedbowka, jedwabnica, jelenioki, kabotek, kaftanik, kalita, kapuza, kłobuk, kontusz, kopki, kornet, koszula, krakuska, kurpsi, kyrpce, maciejówka, modrziniec, nogawice, orpant, oplecek, pas, pas kontuszowy, poloki, rogatywka, serdak, spódnik, stroje ludowe, sukmana, szpyncer, trzos, watówka, wystek, zapaska, żupan, and żywotek.
Bielunka – women’s blouse made from linen or cotton with wide bell-shaped sleeves.
Bruclek – Polish outerwear; linen waistcoat worn over a shirt. The color is typically black or navy blue. It can be rather ornate.
Ciasnocha – female underwear; long underskirt.
Cucha – male coat made from woolen broadcloth. Usually, it is white and richly adorned with embroidery and other decorations.
Czepiec – lace female cap; has a decorative part called “czółko” that covers the forehead.
Czółko – tall black cylindrical headpiece for unmarried girls. It covers the forehead and is tied at the back of the head. This headdress is commonly ornate.
Fortuch (fartuch) – a kind of skirt that consist of two parts – front and back. These pieces of cloth are belted to keep them in place.
Galaty – male linen narrow trousers; usually, blue or dark blue. They are belted with a leather belt wound around several times.
Gorset – very ornate female bodice.
Gunia – woolen winter coat.
Jaka – male short jacket worn for festive occasions. The color is traditionally red with black trim.
Jedbowka – neckerchief worn by men.
Jedwabnica – female headscarf.
Jelenioki – tight yellow men’s trousers.
Kabotek – female short blouse with puffed elbow-length sleeves.
Kaftanik – women’s long-sleeved short jacket. It is usually worn by older women.
Kalita – festive shoulder bag shaped like a horseshoe. It is traditionally worn over the right shoulder.
Kapuza – very big male hat made from lamb’s leather.
Kłobuk – male wide-brimmed hat. It is black, tall, and stiff.
Kontusz (kontush, kuntush) – male outerwear worn by Polish, Lithuanian, and Hungarian nobility. It is a long robe (reaches to below the knees or to the ankles) with long sleeves of a particular shape. The sleeves have a special opening where hands are put so that the sleeve is thrown back.
Kopki – female headdress, a kind of bonnet or coif worn by married women.
Kornet – women’s festive headdress. It is usually high and richly decorated.
Koszula – men’s white linen shirt.
Krakuska – male hat that has 4 prominent corners. Also called “rogatywka”.
Kurpsi – footwear made from tree bark, like bast shoes.
Kyrpce (kierpce) – unisex leather shoes worn in the mountainous regions. Similar footwear called “postoly” is used in Ukraine, Romania, and other Slavic countries.
Maciejówka – male cap. It is soft, round, made from fabric with a short hardened leather peak.
Modrziniec – women’s ankle-length apron worn over the fortuch. It usually is blue.
Nogawice – woolen male trousers. They often are beautifully decorated with embroidery. Another name “portki”.
Orpant – jewelry for the żywotek, chain that is used as lacing at the front.
Oplecek – women’s corset. It can be a separate garment or attached to a skirt.
Pas – female metal belt, often silver. It consists of small plates joined by a chain.
Pas kontuszowy (kontush belt) – male ornate fabric sash used to belt the outer garment called “kontusz”.
Poloki – fancy leather boots worn by the rich.
Rogatywka – male asymmetrical, peaked, 4-pointed cap worn by Polish military. Also called “krakuska”.
Serdak – decorative sheepskin vest, prettily embellished. It can be used by both men and women.
Spódnik – skirt. Often, these skirts were made from linen and trimmed with white lace.
Stroje ludowe – Polish name of “national costume”.
Sukmana – traditional peasant coat. It is made from simple hand-woven fabric and has a white or grayish color. The cut of this coat is not straight, it is widening to the hem.
Szpyncer – short male winter coat. It is worn over the bruclek.
Trzos (also called “pas trzos”) – men’s wide leather belt. Usually, it is ornate – adorned with cutting, stamping, metal decorations, embroidery, etc.
Watówka – women’s quilted jacket. Sometimes, this name also applies to one-piece garment (skirt + bodice sewn together).
Wystek – female bodice fastened at the front.
Zapaska – apron belted at the waist.
Żupan – outerwear, long lined winter coat. Similar garments are used in Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Ukraine, and Belarus.
Żywotek – women’s bodice similar to a corset. Usually, it is sewn to the skirt to form a one-piece dress. The front part is richly adorned with embroidery, sequins, beading, etc.